Elizabeth Barrette (ysabetwordsmith) wrote in torn_world,
Elizabeth Barrette
ysabetwordsmith
torn_world

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Torn Tongue: Indefinite Pronouns

Previously we covered personal, impersonal, and demonstrative pronouns.  This week we're going to discuss indefinite pronouns.

An indefinite pronoun refers to something that is not specific or exact.  English examples include "anybody" or "nothing."

In Torn Tongue, the sets of indefinite pronouns are elaborate -- a basic concept extended through many iterations. This is one of the ways a language can compensate for not encoding number into all the nouns/verbs: there are many pronouns that indicate number such as "none" or "several."  The noun classes also overlap to some sets of pronouns, allowing for distinctions such as "something natural" and "something technological."  Establishing "people words" for technological and abstract categories makes it convenient to talk about statues and deities.  Abstract pronouns may be used when the class of something is unknown or unspecified.

However, some concepts are more condensed in Torn Tongue.  Compared to English, pronouns with “one” and “body” are the same: “anyone” = “anybody” etc.  Those with “place” and “where” are the same: “anywhere” = “anyplace” etc.


...........................Anybody ..... Everybody ..... Nobody ..... Somebody
Natural ............... lekarb .......... mokarb ........... nukarb ....... rikarb
Technological ..... lekalb ........... mokalb ........... nukalb ....... rikalb
Abstract ............. lekag ........... mokag ............ nukag ........ rikag

.......................... Anything ..... Everything ..... Nothing ..... Something
Natural ............... lelarf ............ molarf ............. nularf .......... rilarf
Technological ...... lemilf ........... momilf ............ numilf ......... rimilf
Abstract .............. leruv ............ moruv ............. nuruv .......... riruv

.......................... Anywhere ..... Everywhere ..... Nowhere ..... Somewhere
Natural ............... letark ............. motark .............. nutark .......... ritark
Technological ...... letilk .............. motilk ............... nutilk ........... ritilk
Abstract .............. letuq ............. motuq ............... nutuq ........... rituq


The following set of pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.  To do this, drop the final consonant blend from the root of the pronoun and replace it with the final consonant blend of the noun that matches the indefinite adjective.

English .......... Natural ..... Technological ..... Abstract
any ................. lelalt .......... lelart .................... lelath
all/every ........... momelt ...... momert ................ mometh
none ................ nunilt ......... nunirt ................... nunith
some ............... rirelt ........... rirert .................... rireth
one/only ........... babolt ........ babort .................. baboth
both ................. dedalt ........ dedart .................. dedath
few ................... fifelt ........... fifert ..................... fifeth
several .............. jojelt ......... jojert ..................... jojeth
many ................ kukilt ........ kukirt .................... kukith
more ................. totelt ......... totert .................... toteth
most ................. tototelt ...... tototert .................. tototeth
oodles ............... kukukilt ..... kukukirt ................ kukukith
another/other ...... fefalt ......... fefart ..................... fefath
each .................. bibelt ........ bibert .................... bibeth
either ................. delalt ......... delart ................... delath
neither ................ ninelt ........ ninert ................... nineth
others ................. vevalt ........ vevart ................... vevath

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