Elizabeth Barrette (ysabetwordsmith) wrote in torn_world,
Elizabeth Barrette
ysabetwordsmith
torn_world

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Torn Tongue: Adverbs

Previously we have discussed verbs.  Now we're going to discuss a related category of words, adverbs.


Adverbs

Adverbs modify adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs.  They tell when, where, why, or how something happens.


Word Formation

Adverbs begin with a consonant legitimate for the beginning position:
Consonants that can appear anywhere (C): l, m, n, r
Consonants that can appear at beginning (S): b, d, f, j, k, rr, t, y

Adverbs may include vowels, consonants, or consonant blends legitimate for the middle positions:
Vowels that can appear anywhere (V): a, e, i, o, u
Consonants that can appear anywhere (C): l, m, n, r
Vowels that can appear in middle or end (T): aa, ai, ei, ii, oi, uu
Consonants that appear in middle (R): b, d, f, ff, g, j, k, q, rr, s, ss, sh, t, th, v, y
Blends that can appear in middle (O): bl, br,dl, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr, jl, jr, kl, kr, lb, ld, lf, lg, lj, lk, lm, ln, lr, ls, lsh, lt, lth, lv, ly, ml, mr, nl, nr, ny, rb, rd, rf, rg, rj, rk, rl, rm, rn, rs, rsh, rt, rth, rv, ry, sl, sr, shl, shr, tl, tr, thl, thr, ty, vl, vr

Adverbs may end with a vowel, consonant, or consonant blend legitimate for the end position:
Vowels that can appear anywhere (V): a, e, i, o, u
Consonants that can appear anywhere (C): l, m, n, r
Vowels that can appear in middle or end (T): aa, ai, ei, ii, oi, uu
Consonants that can appear at end (Q): ff, g, q, s, ss, sh, th, v
Blends that can appear at end (N): lb, ld, lf, lg, lj, lk, lm, ln, lr, ls, lsh, lt, lth, lv, rb, rd, rf, rg, rj, rk, rl, rm, rn, rs, rsh, rt, rth, rv

Most adverb roots are variations of: CVC, CVCV, or CVCVC.  Possible variations include substituting L (for the long vowels) in place of one of the Vs.

Remember the rule that each basic word may have only one long vowel or consonant blend.  This keeps it from sounding cumbersome.


VOCABULARY

English .................... Torn Tongue
again ......................... rilii
almost ....................... mim
even (quite) ................ yara
ever ........................... maith
here ........................... lom
much ......................... mur
no .............................. neq
not ............................. nesh
now ............................ jor
please ........................ feshu
quickly ....................... koilar
quietly ........................ faarum
quite .......................... kom
so .............................. yor
then ........................... tol
there .......................... ron
there-over-yonder ........ rroin
today ......................... dar
together ..................... belei
tomorrow ................... kradar
very ........................... rel
well ........................... rar
yes ........................... jath
yesterday .................. kledar

Notice that a few of these words are related to each other, such as ron ("there") and rroin ("there-over-yonder").  In this case, the longer vowel helps add emphasis.  The word for "today" is dar, which appears in both kledar  ("yesterday") and kradar  ("tomorrow").  The prefix kle(m)- means "before," rather like pre- in English, so kledar  means "before-today."  The prefix kra(l)- means "after," similar to post- in English, so kradar  means "after-today."  (Contrast this with the noun for "day," which is orn.)

Tags: linguistics
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